The chapter helps students understand how some men became rulers. The chapter describes in detail about janapadas, mahajanapadas, taxes, changes in agriculture around mahajanapadas time, how Magadha became the most important mahajanapada and at the end a close look to the Vajji.CBSE Notes Class 6 History Chapter 5 Kingdoms Kings and an Early Republic

CBSE Notes Class 6 History Chapter 5 – Kingdoms, Kings and an Early Republic

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  • Janapadas:

The powerful kings who performed big sacrifices and later ruled larger territories termed as Janapadas. The term “Janapada” literally means ‘foothold of a tribe’. A Janapada could be a republic like Vajji or a monarchy like Magadha.

  • Vamas:

Later, Vedic texts like Samaveda, Yajur Veda and Atharvaveda mentioned certain rules about the society. There were different groups in the society such as priests and warriors, farmers, herders, traders, craftspersons and labourers.

  • Varna Hierarchy:

The priests divided people into four groups called vamas. Each varna had different sets of functions.

  • Selection of the Rulers:

In ancient India, some of the rajas were probably chosen by the Jana, the

people. Some changes regarding the election of the Raja took place around 3,000 years ago. Some men performed Ashvamedha sacrifice and came to be recognised as rajas.

  • Gana:

 This was the method of rule in early centuries where members of society met in assemblies and decided about administration through discussions and debates.

  • Mahajanapadas:

A Mahajanapada was usually ruled from its capital city. There was intense rivalry among the Mahajanapadas, resulting in frequent wars. Huge walls made of mud, stone, wood or bricks were used to fortify these capital cities.

  • Taxes:

Money was required by new rajas for building forts and armies. They started collecting regular taxes from the people. The tax could be paid either in cash or in kind.

  • Changes in Agriculture:

Agriculture prospered in most of the Mahajanapadas as they were located in fertile areas. Two major changes came in agriculture. One was the increasing use of the iron plough. Secondly, people began transplanting paddy which led to increased production.

Around 3000 years ago, there were some new ways of choosing ‘rajas’. Some men became ‘rajas’ by performing big sacrifices. One of such rituals was ‘ASHVAMEDHA’ (horse sacrifice). The ‘raja’ was an important figure.

Kingdoms were usually called the ‘Janapadas’, which were ruled by the ‘rajas’. People lived in huts and kept animals. They grew a variety of crops.

Some ‘janapadas’ later became more important than others, and they were called ‘Mahajanapadas’. The capital cities were fortified.

The new ‘rajas’ began maintaining armies. Payments were made using punch marked coins.

The ‘rajas’ needed resources to build forts and to maintain armies. Officials were supposed to collect taxes from people. Taxes were in the form of crops, labour, animals and their produce, etc.

There were changes in agriculture too. The use of Iron Ploughshares increased, thus enhancing grain production. People started transplanting paddy. This also increased production.

Magadha became the most important ‘mahajanapada’ in about 200 years. Transport, water supplies, fertility, forests, elephants, mines, etc. made Magadha important.

The two powerful rulers of Magadha, Bimbisara and Ajatasattu used all possible means to conquer other ‘janapadas’. Rajagriha was the capital of Magadha. Later it was Pataliputra (now Patna).

Vajji was another kingdom with its capital at Vaishali (Bihar). It had a different form of government called ‘gana’/‘sangha’, which had not one, but many rulers. These rulers performed rituals together and met in assemblies. Buddhist books depict life in the ‘sanghas’.

‘Rajas’ of powerful kingdoms tried to conquer the ‘sanghas’.

  • ‘Ashvamedha’: (horse sacrifice) This was a ritual in which a horse was let loose to wander freely and it was guarded by the ‘rajas’ men. If the horse entered other kingdoms, there would be a duel between the two kings.
  • ‘Bhaga’: Taxes on crops (1/6 of the produce) was called ‘bhaga’.
  • ‘Gana’/‘Sangha’: A form of government followed in the kingdom of Vajji.
  • ‘Janapadas’: Kingdoms were referred to as ‘janapadas’. (‘jana’ – land, ‘pada’ – foot).
  • ‘Mahajanapada’: The most important of the ‘janapadas’.
  • ‘Varnas’: Each of the four categories of society, based on occupation and decided by birth, was referred to as ‘Varnas’.
  • About 3000 years ago (around 1000 B.C.) – new kinds of ‘rajas’.
  • About 2500 years ago (around 500 B.C.) – formation of ‘mahajanapadas’.
  • About 2300 years ago (around 300 B.C.) – the invasion of Alexander the Great.

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CBSE Notes for Class 6 Geography Free Download for All Chapters

Download PDF of NCERT Solutions for Class 6 Geography

Chapter NameCBSE Class 6 Geography Study NotesNCERT Solutions Download Class 6
The Earth in the Solar SystemThe Earth in the Solar System Class 6 Notes Geography Chapter 1NCERT Solutions The Earth in the Solar System Chapter 1
Globe: Latitudes and LongitudesGlobe: Latitudes and Longitudes Class 6 Notes Geography Chapter 2NCERT Solutions Globe: Latitudes and Longitudes Chapter 2
Motions of the EarthMotions of the Earth Class 6 Notes Geography Chapter 3NCERT Solutions Motions of the Earth Chapter 3
MapsMaps Class 6 Notes Geography Chapter 4NCERT Solutions Maps Chapter 4
Major Domains of the EarthMajor Domains of the Earth Class 6 Notes Geography Chapter 5NCERT Solutions Major Domains of the Earth Chapter 5
Major Landforms of the EarthMajor Landforms of the Earth Class 6 Notes Geography Chapter 6NCERT Solutions Major Landforms of the Earth Chapter 6
Our Country – IndiaOur Country – India Class 6 Notes Geography Chapter 7NCERT Solutions Our Country – India Chapter 7
India: Climate, Vegetation and WildlifeIndia: Climate, Vegetation and Wildlife Class 6 Notes Geography Chapter 8NCERT Solutions India: Climate, Vegetation and Wildlife Chapter 8

CBSE Notes for Class 6 History Free Download for All Chapters

Download PDF of NCERT Solutions for Class 6 History

Chapter NameCBSE Class 6 History Study NotesNCERT Solutions Download Class 6
What, Where, How And When?What, Where, How And When? Class 6 Notes History Chapter 1NCERT Solutions What, Where, How And When? Chapter 1
From Gathering To Growing FoodFrom Gathering To Growing Food Class 6 Notes History Chapter 2NCERT Solutions From Gathering To Growing Food Chapter 2
In The Earliest CitiesIn The Earliest Cities Class 6 Notes History Chapter 3NCERT Solutions In The Earliest Cities Chapter 3
What Books And Burials Tell UsWhat Books And Burials Tell Us Class 6 Notes History Chapter 4NCERT Solutions What Books And Burials Tell Us Chapter 4
Kingdoms, Kings And An Early RepublicKingdoms, Kings And An Early Republic Class 6 Notes History Chapter 5NCERT Solutions Kingdoms, Kings And An Early Republic Chapter 5
New Questions And IdeasNew Questions And Ideas Class 6 Notes History Chapter 6NCERT Solutions New Questions And Ideas Chapter 6
Ashoka, The Emperor Who Gave Up WarAshoka, The Emperor Who Gave Up War Class 6 Notes History Chapter 7NCERT Solutions Ashoka, The Emperor Who Gave Up War Chapter 7
Vital Villages, Thriving TownsVital Villages, Thriving Towns Class 6 Notes History Chapter 8NCERT Solutions Vital Villages, Thriving Towns Chapter 8
Traders, Kings And PilgrimsTraders, Kings And Pilgrims Class 6 Notes History Chapter 9NCERT Solutions Traders, Kings And Pilgrims Chapter 9
New Empires And KingdomsNew Empires And Kingdoms Class 6 Notes History Chapter 10NCERT Solutions New Empires And Kingdoms Chapter 10
Buildings, Paintings And BooksBuildings, Paintings And Books Class 6 Notes History Chapter 11NCERT Solutions Buildings, Paintings And Books Chapter 11
   

CBSE Notes for Class 6 Civics Free Download for All Chapters

Download PDF of NCERT Solutions for Class 6 Civics

Chapter NameCBSE Class 6 Civics Study NotesNCERT Solutions Download Class 6
Understanding DiversityUnderstanding Diversity Class 6 Notes Civics Chapter 1NCERT Solutions Understanding Diversity Chapter 1
Diversity and DiscriminationDiversity and Discrimination Class 6 Notes Civics Chapter 2NCERT Solutions Diversity and Discrimination Chapter 2
What is Government?What is Government? Class 6 Notes Civics Chapter 3NCERT Solutions What is Government? Chapter 3
Key Elements of a Democratic GovernmentKey Elements of a Democratic Government Class 6 Notes Civics Chapter 4NCERT Solutions Key Elements of a Democratic Government Chapter 4
Panchayati RajPanchayati Raj Class 6 Notes Civics Chapter 5NCERT Solutions Panchayati Raj Chapter 5
Rural AdministrationRural Administration Class 6 Notes Civics Chapter 6NCERT Solutions Rural Administration Chapter 6
Urban AdministrationUrban Administration Class 6 Notes Civics Chapter 7NCERT Solutions Urban Administration Chapter 7
Rural LivelihoodsRural Livelihoods Class 6 Notes Civics Chapter 8NCERT Solutions Rural Livelihoods Chapter 8
Urban LivelihoodsUrban Livelihoods Class 6 Notes Civics Chapter 9NCERT Solutions Urban Livelihoods Chapter 9

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Maths Olympiad Syllabus

ClassSyllabusClassSyllabus
Class 1Maths Olympiad Syllabus Class 1Class 7Maths Olympiad Syllabus Class 7
Class 2Maths Olympiad Syllabus Class 2Class 8Maths Olympiad Syllabus Class 8
Class 3Maths Olympiad Syllabus Class 3Class 9Maths Olympiad Syllabus Class 9
Class 4Maths Olympiad Syllabus Class 4Class 10Maths Olympiad Syllabus Class 10
Class 5Maths Olympiad Syllabus Class 5Class 11Maths Olympiad Syllabus Class 11
Class 6Maths Olympiad Syllabus Class 6Class 12Maths Olympiad Syllabus Class 12

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