Learn from School Connect Online in this chapter we will learn the things,like our garden has different varieties of plants like grasses, bushes, flowering plants and tall coconut trees. In this chapter we will learn how to classify them in categories?Getting to Know Plants Class 6 Notes Science Chapter 7
CBSE Class 6 Science Notes Chapter 7 Getting to Know Plants
The different topics covered in CBSE Class 6 Science Chapter 7 are tabulated below:
|7.1||Herbs, Shrubs and Trees|
Plants are living things that grow on land or in water. From snowy mountain slopes to dry, hot deserts, plants can survive almost anywhere on Earth.
Plants can be divided into two groups :
(i). Flowering Plants
Ex : sunflowers, orchids
(ii). Non-flowering Plants
Ex : mosses and ferns
All plants make their own food, taking energy from sunlight. Unlike animals, plants cannot move from place to place, and most are rooted in the ground.
Ex : 7.1 – Herbs, shrubs and trees :
Herbs, shrubs and trees: Plants are usually grouped into herbs, shrubs and trees on the basis of their heights, stem and branches:
- Herbs: Plants with green and tender stems are called herbs. They are usually short and sometimes do not have branches.
- Shrubs: Some plants have branches arising from the base of the stem. The stem is hard but not very thick. They are called shrubs.
- Trees: Some plants are very tall and have hard and thick stems. They have branches arising from the upper part of the stem. They are called trees.
Creepers and climbers:
The stem of some plants are very thin and weak. They either lie on the ground or need support to stand up. They are called creepers and climbers respectively.
- Climbers are much more advanced than creepers. Climbers have a very thin, long and weak stem which cannot stand upright, but they can use external support to grow vertically and carry their weight. These types of plants use special structures called tendrils to climb. Few climbers plants names include pea plant, grapevine, sweet gourd, money plant, jasmine, runner beans, green peas, etc.
- Creepers, as the name suggests, are plants that creep on the ground. They have very fragile, long, thin stems that can neither stand erect nor support all its weight. Examples include watermelon, strawberry, pumpkin and sweet potatoes.
Ex : 7.2 – Stem :
- It bears leaves, buds, flowers, fruits, etc.
- The stem conducts water from the roots to the leaves and to the other parts and food from leaves to the roots and other parts of the plant.
- Potatoes, yams, ginger, onion, etc. though present in the soil, are actually stem and store food within them.
Ex : 7.3 – Leaf :
Leaf is the most important part of the plant. Most leaves of plants are green in colour. There are different shapes and sizes of leaves.
Different parts of a Leaf :
Leaf has different parts:
- Midrib: It is the thick vein in the middle of the leaf.
- Types of venation: Two types of venation are found:
- Reticulate: If the venation is in a net-like appearance on both sides of midrib, it is called reticulate. For example, peepal.
- Parallel: In the leaves of grasses, the veins and veinlets are parallel to one another. Such a venation is called parallel.
- Node: Places where leaves and branches are joined to stem are called nodes.
- Internodes: The part of the stem between two nodes is called internode.
Function of Leaves :
- Transpiration: The loss of water in the form of vapours from the stomata on leaves is called transpiration.
- Photosynthesis: A process by which green plants make their food from sunlight, carbon dioxide and water is called photosynthesis.
Ex : 7.4 – Root :
- Roots are mostly the underground part of the plant.
- They absorb water and minerals from the soil.
- They hold the soil firmly to keep the plant upright.
- Some roots store food and become plump.
There are two types of roots :
- Tap root : Tap roots are seen in large trees and shrubs.
- Fibrous root : Fibrous roots are common in herbs.
Ex : 7.5 – Flower :
A flower is the part of a plant that is responsible for making new seeds. It is often made of petals and may have an attractive scent.
Reproduction in flowering plants:
Flowering plants make new seeds inside the flower using male and female parts. Some plants, such as holly trees, may have either male or female flowers. If a tree has male flowers it will never produce any berries : they are only produced on trees with female flowers.
Flowers, Fruits, and Seeds :
A flower is the reproductive organ of a plant. A seed is an enclosed dormant embryo of a plant. They are found in the fruits and when sown, gives rise to a new plant.
- The parts that remain under the ground (roots) form the root system.
- The parts above the ground (stem, leaves, flowers, and fruits) form the shoot system.
- There are two main types of root systems: tap root system and fibrous root system.
- Roots may be modified for support, storage of food, propagation, etc.
- Stems may be modified for support, protection, photosynthesis, food storage, and reproduction.
- Leaves are green because they have a green pigment called chlorophyll. Green leaves manufacture their food with the help of carbon dioxide, water, and light.
- Flower is the reproductive organ of a plant. Flowers have petals, sepals, stamens, and carpel.
- The pollen grains need to be transferred to the stigma from the anther of the flower for pollination.
- The seed has an embryo, which develops into a new plant under suitable conditions.
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