Class 6 Science Notes Chapter 3 Fibre to Fabric
The different topics covered in CBSE Class 6 Science Chapter 3 are tabulated below:
|Section Name||Section Name|
|Ex. 3.1||Variety In Fabrics|
|Ex. 3.3||Some Plant Fibres|
|Ex. 3.4||Spinning Cotton Yarn|
|Ex. 3.5||Yarn To Fabric|
|Ex. 3.6||History Of Clothing Material.|
Ex. 3.1 – Variety In Fabrics
There are many types of fabrics. Wool, cotton, silk, jute, nylon etc are the names of some of the fabrics. Some fabrics appear shiny while some appear very dull. Some fabrics keep us warm while some of the fabric we like to use in summer. Fabrics depend upon fibres from which it is made.
Ex. 3.2 – Fibre
Today, there are many materials with which clothes are made. A person can choose from purchasing clothes made from natural origin materials, like silk, wool, and leather, but may also select one for the man-made fibers extensively used in clothes manufacturing, like nylon, polyester, Lycra and Gore-Tex.
It is the fibre which makes fabrics. Fibres can be classified into two types :
(a) Natural Fibre :
Fibres that we get from nature are called natural fibres. For example cotton, wool, silk, and jute, etc. are examples of Natural Fibres.
Natural fibres further can be classified into two groups.
(i). Plant fibre
Fibres which we get from plant sources are called Plant Fibres. For example cotton, jute, flex, coconut fibre (coir), etc.
(ii). Animal fibre
Fibres we get from animals are called Animal Fibres. For example wool and silk.
We get wool from sheep, goat, camel, etc. Sheep, goat, camel, etc. have thick layers of hair on their body, which protect them from harsh climate. Hair of their body is called fleece. This fleece is cut out and called wool.
We get silk from silkworms.
(b) Artificial or Synthetic Fibre :
Fibres made in the laboratory are called man–made fibre or synthetic fibres. For example nylon, polyester, acrylic, terricot, etc.
Ex. 3.3 – Some Plant Fibres
Cotton is cultivated in the field. In India cotton is known for 1800 BC. Cultivation of cotton needs a warm climate and black clayey soil. Cotton is cultivated almost in every part of India. Cotton fibre is cultivated at large scale in the State of Maharashtra, Gujrat, Punjab, Haryana, Rajasthan, Tamil Nadu and Madhya Pradesh.
Cotton is shown in early spring. Its plants are about 1 to 2 metre in height. Cotton plant takes 60 days in flowering. Cotton flowers turn into fruit. Fruits of cotton are spherical in shape. Cotton fruits have lemon type shape and size. Cotton fruits are called Cotton Bolls.
After maturing, the Cotton Bolls burst open and seeds covered with Cotton Fibre become visible. The colour of Cotton Fibre is white. Cotton Fibre is called Cotton Wool also. A cotton file looks like a field covered with snow.
Processing of Cotton
Cotton Bolls are picked up by hand from the field. After picking up, seeds inside the Cotton Bolls are separated by combing. The process of combing to separate out seeds from Cotton Bolls is called Ginning of cotton.
Ginning of cotton is traditionally done manually. These days, machines are used for Ginning. Machine which is used in combing cotton is called the Ginning Machine.
Ginned cotton is compressed in bales. The weight of one bale is up to 200kg. Cotton bales are then sent to the desired places like in the spinning mills.
Jute is cultivated to obtain jute fibre. Jute is called patsun, paat or patua in Hindi. Jute plant is cultivated mainly in Indian subcontinent and in Arfican countries.
Jute fibre is obtained from the stem of the jute plant. Jute fibre is cultivated during the rainy season.
Like Jute, Flax fibre is obtained from the stem of the Flax plant. After cutting off flax plants these are left for Retting. In stagnant water gummy matter that holds the fibres is destroyed by bacteria.
Ex. 3.4 – Spinning Cotton Yarn
The cotton bales are loosened and cleaned. The loosening and cleaning of Cotton Bales is called Carding.
Then cotton fibres are converted into a rope like loose strand, these strands are called silver. Strands are pulled and twisted to make yarn. Twisting makes yarn stronger. This process of pulling and twisting cotton is called Spinning.
Nowadays spinning is done by machine in the spinning mills.
A simple device which was used for spinning the strands by hand is called “Charkha” and another tool is called “Takli”.
Mahatma Gandhi used Charkha as a symbol of freedom weapons against English in the Struggle for Freedom. He encouraged people to wear clothes made of homespun yarn and shun imported cloth made in the mills of Britain.
Ex. 3.5 – Yarn To Fabric
After spinning, yarns are used in making fabrics. Weaving and Knitting are two main processes used for making yarn to fabric.
- Weaving : The process of arranging two sets of yarns together to make a fabric is called weaving.
- Knitting : Knitting is also a process to make fabric using yarn. In knitting a single yarn is used to make a fabric.Knitting is done by hand and also on machine.Socks, sweaters etc are examples of knitted fabrics.
Ex. 3.6 – History Of Clothing Material
In ancient times people were not civilized and they used to live in forests without any clothes. With the lapse of time to protect from harsh climate people started covering their body using bark and big leaves of trees or animal skins and furs.Gradually, they learnt to twine grass and fibre of trees and weaved it to make longer piece which they used to cover their waist as modern skirts. They also learnt to twine the animal hairs to make robes like outfits.A revolution came after the invention of the stitching needle about 50,000 years ago. With the help of stitching needles people started to stitch the clothes made of bark and fibre of trees and animals which can fit in their body.After learning the agriculture people started to weave the plant materials by hand to make cloths.
Fabrics are made of fibre.There are two types of fibre – Natural and Man–Made.
Today doors and windows also are decorated with beautiful curtains. Different types of bed-sheets, table cloths, etc are used to beautify homes. Clothes of different designs are used to cover and beautify our body. Fibre, fabrics and clothes production became one of the biggest industries today.
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