## CBSE Class 6 Science Notes Chapter 10 Motion and Measurement of Distances

Learn from School Connect Online in this chapter we will learn about Motion and Measurement of Distances. In ancient time man used to move only on foot and carry goods either on his back or on the back of some animals.Motion and Measurement of Distances Class 6 notes

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## The different topics covered in CBSE Class 6 Science Chapter 10 are tabulated below:

Ex 10.1 | Story of Transport |

Ex 10.2 | How far have you travelled? How wide is the desk? |

Ex 10.3 | Some Measurements |

Ex 10.4 | Standard units of Measurements |

Ex 10.5 | Correct Measurement of Length |

Ex 10.6 | Measuring the length of a curved line |

Ex 10.7 | Moving things around us |

Ex 10.8 | Types of Motion |

**Ex : 10.1 – **** Story of Transport**

In ancient times man used to move only on foot and carry goods either on his back or on the back of some animals.

A great change in the modes of transport was made:

- by the invention of wheels.
- by the invention of the steam engine.

**Ex : 10.2 – **** How far have you Travelled? How wide is the desk?**

**Length and distance**

- Distance is the measure of how far or long something is. E.g.: the length of a table, or a soccer field or, how far is Mumbai from Delhi?
- Length can be measured in terms of a unit. A unit is a comparison of an unknown quantity with that of a known quantity. It is required to establish a common standard or convention in order to make calculations and analysis easier worldwide.

**Traditional ways of measuring lengths**

Traditional methods of measuring length were the use of the length of one’s foot or other body parts. But, was inconsistent since this varies from person to person and lacks uniformity.

**Ex : 10.3 – **** Some Measurements**

**Non-standard measures:** The lengths of steps, arms, hands, or fingers of different people are different, therefore the distance measured with their help is not always reliable. These methods are, therefore, called non-standard measures.

**Ex : 10.4 – **** Standard Units of Measurements**

**Metre:** It is the standard unit of length. The symbol of metre is **m**.

**Standard measures:** Measures that are the same all over the world are known as standard measures.

**Standardising length measurement**

- Scientists from all over the world have accepted a common standard unit of measurement.
- The International System of Units (S.I unit) was set up as the convention for measurement worldwide.
- A metre is the SI unit of length. It has 100 equal divisions called centimetres.
- To measure large distances we use kilometres. 1 Km = 1000 metres.

**Ex : 10.5 – **** Correct Measurement of Length**

Each metre (m) is divided into 100 equal divisions, called centimetre (cm). Each centimetre has ten equal divisions, called millimetre (mm).

Thus,

- 1 m = 100 cm
- 1 cm = 10 mm

For measuring large distances, metre is not a convenient unit.

We define a larger unit of length. It is called kilometre (km).

- 1 km = 1000 m.

Simple multiples of units: Units that are used for the measurement of larger distances are the multiples of SI units.

For example: deca, hecto, kilo.

- 1 decametre = 10 m
- 1 hectometre = 100 m
- 1 kilometre = 1000 m

**Submultiples of units:** Units used for measuring smaller distances are the submultiples of SI units.

For example, milli, centi, deci.

- 1 m = 10 decimetre
- 1 m = 100 centimetre
- 1 m = 1000 millimetre

**Zero error and Correct way to measure length**

- Scale must be in contact with the object being measured.
- If scales are broken or the zero mark is not visible, it can lead to a zero error. Then measuring from a different mark must be carried out.
- The correct reading will be obtained by subtracting the value from the full mark considered as the zero.
- While measuring the eye must be exactly above the point where the measurement is to be taken, in order to avoid parallax errors.

**Ex – 10.6 – Measuring the Length of a Curved Line**

We cannot measure the length of a curved line directly by using a metre scale. We can use a thread or divider to measure the length of a curved line.

**Length of a curved line**

- Curved lengths cannot be measured using metre scales.
- A string or a thread can be used to measure curved lines by creating a knot at one end and keeping that at the beginning, one can trace the curved line.
- Then this length can be stretched out and measured with the help of a metre scale.
- A measuring tape can be used to find lengths of curved objects. E.g. girth of a tree trunk, or length of a snake.

**Ex : 10.7 – Measuring the Length of a Curved Line**

**Motion:** It is a state of objects in which they are moving, that is, they are changing their place with the changing time.

**Rest:** All the stationary objects which are not in motion, that is, do not change their place with time are said to be at rest.

Objects which are moving around us are said to be in **motion **whereas the objects which are not moving are said to be at **rest**.

- Any change in position with time can be termed as motion.
- A motion can be termed as slow or fast based on the distance it covers in a specific amount of time. More distance covered means the motion is fast and vice versa.
- Motion can be the complete object or the parts within it.
- Objects like trains, hands of a clock, ants are moving objects whereas houses, trees, wall clocks or non-moving or stationary objects.

**Ex : 10.8 – Types of Motion**

- When a body is moving in a straight line path, it is called
**rectilinear**motion.

E.x : a coin falling from a building, or a sprinter running a 100 metre race.

- When an object is following a circular path of motion, it is called
**circular**motion.

E.x : the moon revolving around the earth.

- When an object moves to and fro from a mean or constant position or repeats the motion, it is called
**periodic**motion.

E.x : a pendulum, or a race car taking laps of a circuit.

**Conclusion :**

**Unit of measurements**- It involves the comparison of an unknown quantity with some known quantity of the same kind.
- This known fixed quantity is called unit.
- The result of measurement is expressed in two parts. One part is a number; the other part is the unit of measurement.
**Circular motion:**When a body moves in a circular path, its motion is known as circular motion.**Distance:**Measurement of gap between two points in certain units is called distance.**Measurement:**Measurement means the comparison of an unknown quantity with some known quantity.**Motion:**It is a state of objects in which they are moving that is, they are changing their place with time.**Periodic motion:**Motion in which an object repeats its motion after a fixed interval of time is called periodic motion.**Rectilinear motion:**When the objects change their position with time along a straight line, this type of motion is called rectilinear motion.**SI units:**In October, 1960 the 12th general conference on weight and measures adopted the International system of units to maintain uniformity all over the world. This system of units is called SI units.**Units of measurement:**Measurement means the comparison of an unknown quantity with some known quantity. This known fixed quantity is called a unit of measurement.**Time :**Time is the unit that measures how long it takes to do anything. Distance is measured with respect to time.- If an object is moving with some speed ‘s’ for a time interval ‘t’, then the distance covered in that time will be = s x t

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