NCERT Syllabus for Class 11 Chemistry – Revised Syllabus
Chemistry is one of the vital subjects in Science stream and it is also of very much importance while preparing for various competitive exams and hence it is essential to prepare,Get CBSE Class 11 Chemistry Revised Syllabus 2020-21
CBSE Class 11 Deleted Portion of Syllabus for 2020-2021
Check subject-wise details of the deducted portion of CBSE Class 9 syllabus from the following links:
CBSE class 11 chemistry is crucial for students preparing for their class 11 chemistry exam. Moreover, if the basic concepts of chemistry are not clear, students may find themselves unable to comprehend more complex topics. Hence, it is imperative that students refer to their class 11 chemistry notes for efficient exam preparation.
|CBSE Chemistry Notes For Class 11|
|Chapter 1 – Some Basic Concepts of Chemistry|
|Chapter 2 – Structure of Atom|
|Chapter 3 – Classification of Elements and Periodicity in Properties|
|Chapter 4 – Chemical Bonding and Molecular Structure|
|Chapter 5 – States Of Matter|
|Chapter 6 – Thermodynamics|
|Chapter 7 – Equilibrium|
|Chapter 8 – Redox Reactions|
|Chapter 9 – Hydrogen|
|Chapter 10 – The s-Block Elements|
|Chapter 11 – The p-Block Elements|
|Chapter 12 – Organic Chemistry – Some Basic Principles And Techniques|
|Chapter 13 – Hydrocarbons|
|Chapter 14 – Environmental Chemistry (Complete chapter removed from syllabus for 2020-21 academic session)|
Chapter 1 – Some Basic Concepts of Chemistry
Chemistry is referred to as the “Central Science” as it interconnects geology, biology, environmental science, and physics to each other. Ancient Indians had knowledge of various concepts from chemistry even before it emerged as a discipline. In chemistry, one of the core fundamental concepts is matter – it is defined as a substance that occupies physical space and has inertia. There are three states of matter viz solid, gas, liquid. Matter can also be classified into compounds, mixtures or elements.
Chapter 2 – Structure of Atom
As discussed in the previous chapter, according to Dalton’s atomic theory, atoms are the building blocks of matter. In 1808, John Dalton proposed atomic theory saying that an atom is an indivisible particle of matter. By the end of the nineteenth century, experiments proved that atoms consist of three particles viz protons, neutrons, and electrons. Therefore, the discovery of subatomic particles gave rise to various atomic models to explain the structure of an atom.
Chapter 3 – Classification of Elements and Periodicity in Properties
In this chapter, we will discuss the development of the periodic table and the periodic law. The arrangement of elements in the modern periodic table is organized into eight vertical columns (groups) and seven horizontal rows (periods) based on their atomic number.
Chapter 4 – Chemical Bonding and Molecular Structure
The insight by Kossel’s about the mechanism of formation of electronegative and electropositive ions interconnected the process of attaining noble gas configuration by corresponding ions. They are stable due to the electrostatic attraction of allying ions. Hence gives rise to a concept called electrovalency.
Chapter 5 – States Of Matter
The intermolecular forces run between the particles of matter. There exists a pure electrostatic force between two ions which are oppositely charged. The intermolecular forces are different from these pure electrostatic forces.
Chapter 6 – Thermodynamics
Thermodynamics deals with the change of energy in physical and chemical processes. It allows us to study these changes quantitatively as well as to make effective predictions. Therefore, we divide the universe as surrounding and system. Physical or chemical processes lead to progression or immersion of heat, part of it may be converted to work. According to the first law of thermodynamics, these quantities are related as ∆U = q + w where q is heat and w is work. Change in internal energy is a state function and depends on only the initial and final states. On the other hand, w and q are not state functions.
Chapter 7 – Equilibrium
Equilibrium is attained when molecules leaving the liquid to vapour equals the molecules returning to the liquid from vapour. Kc is the equilibrium constant. It is defined as the concentration of products divided by the concentration of reactants where each term is raised to the stoichiometric coefficient.
Chapter 8 – Redox Reactions
Redox reaction is the combination of both oxidation and reduction reactions. When a redox reaction takes place, both oxidation and reduction reactions also occur simultaneously.
Redox reactions can be classified into four different categories:
- Combination reaction
- Decomposition reaction
- Displacement reaction
- Disproportionation reaction
Chapter 9 – Hydrogen
The lightest atom on earth is hydrogen which has a single electron. In the year 1766, Henry Cavendish was the first to discover it. The three stable isotopes of hydrogen are protium, deuterium, and tritium. The radioactive isotope amongst these three is tritium. Hydrogen is one of the most abundant elements found in the universe. Even though it resembles halogen and alkali metals, it has unique properties and has a separate position in the periodic table.
Chapter 10 – The s-Block Elements
The group 1 and group 2 elements of the periodic table are called the s-block elements. The group 1 elements are alkali metals, and the group 2 elements are alkaline earth metals. They are named so because of the alkaline nature of the hydroxides and oxides. Alkaline earth metals are characterized by two s-electrons, whereas alkali metals by one s-electron in the valence shell of their atoms. These metals form mono positive and dipositive ions and are extremely reactive.
Chapter 11 – The p-Block Elements
In the periodic table, there are six groups of p-block elements from 13 to 18 with an electronic configuration ns2np1–6. It has all types of elements such as metalloids, non-metal, and metal. Their chemical and physical properties are highly influenced by the difference between the inner core of their electronic configuration. The lighter elements of the group have a quite stable group oxidation state. The heavier elements form dπ–dπ or dπ–pπ bonds and have more stable lower oxidation states. Whereas the lighter elements form pπ–pπ bonds. The absence of d orbital in second-period elements has limited their maximum covalence to 4, while heavier ones can exceed this limit.
Chapter 12 – Organic Chemistry – Some Basic Principles And Techniques
In this chapter, we will discuss some basic concepts in the structure and reactivity of organic compounds, that are formed as a result of covalent bonding. The covalent bonding nature of organic compounds is expressed in terms of orbitals hybridization, where carbon can have sp2, sp, and sp3 hybridized orbitals. Some examples of sp, sp2 and, sp3 hybridized carbons are ethane, ethyne, and methane. The shape of these compounds is easy to understand based on this concept.
Chapter 13 – Hydrocarbons
The compounds consisting of hydrogen and carbon only are called hydrocarbons. They are obtained from the major sources of energy like petroleum and coal. Compressed natural gas (CNG) and liquefied petroleum gas (LPG) are the primary sources of energy for the automobile industry, and domestic fuel is obtained from petroleum.
Chapter 14 – Environmental Chemistry
Studying environmental chemistry plays a significant role. The effect of unwelcome changes happening in the surrounding that has a negative effect on human beings, plants, and animals. The pollutants of the atmosphere occur in all three states of matter.
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