CBSE Class 12 chemistry for the academic year 2020-2021
Class 12 is the most challenging academic year for students wherein the efforts and dedication put in by students determines their bright future. Naturally, if the stakes are so high, the pressure would be at its peak given the level of competition out there. Students more specifically find science to be more intimidating, which covers Physics, Chemistry, Biology.CBSE Class 12 chemistry
CBSE Class 12 Deleted Portion of Syllabus for 2020-2021
Check subject-wise details of the deducted portion of CBSE Class 9 syllabus from the following links:
CBSE class 12 Chemistry Notes: Chapter wise
|CBSE Chemistry Notes For Class 12|
|Chapter 1 – The Solid State|
|Chapter 2 – Solutions|
|Chapter 3 – Electrochemistry|
|Chapter 4 – Chemical Kinetics|
|Chapter 5 – Surface Chemistry|
|Chapter 6 – General Principles and Processes of Isolation of Elements (Complete chapter removed from syllabus for 2020-21 academic session)|
|Chapter 7 – The p-Block Elements|
|Chapter 8 – The d-and f-Block Elements|
|Chapter 9 – Coordination Compounds|
|Chapter 10 – Haloalkanes and Haloarenes|
|Chapter 11 – Alcohols, Phenols and Ethers|
|Chapter 12 – Aldehydes, Ketones and Carboxylic Acids|
|Chapter 13 – Amines|
|Chapter 14 – Biomolecules|
|Chapter 15 – Polymers (Complete chapter removed from syllabus for 2020-21 academic session)|
|Chapter 16 – Chemistry in Everyday Life (Complete chapter removed from syllabus for 2020-21 academic session)|
PART 1 :
Chapter 1 – The Solid State
Solids have definite volume, shape, and mass due to the short distance between the fixed position of particles and strong interactions between them.
Chapter 2 – Solutions
A solution comprises a solute and a solvent. It is defined as a homogeneous mixture of two or more than two substances. They can be classified into three types:
- Solid solutions
- Gaseous solutions
- Liquid solutions
Molarity, mole fraction, percentages, and molality are the terms used to express the concentration of a solution.
Chapter 3 – Electrochemistry
A device that generates a potential difference between electrodes by chemical reactions is called an electrochemical cell. It comprises two electron conductors which are separated by an ionic conductor and are linked by an electron conductor. The two metallic electrodes are dipped in the electrolytic solution. The important component of this cell is an ionic conductor.
Chapter 4 – Chemical Kinetics
Study of chemical reactions concerning the rate of reaction, the formation of intermediates, rearrangement of atoms, and the effect of different variables is called chemical kinetics. Factors affecting the rate of reaction are the catalyst concentration of reactants, and temperature. The rate of reaction cannot be predicted but has to be determined experimentally. Rate law gives the mathematical representation of the rate of reaction.
Chapter 5 – Surface Chemistry
The event of attracting and keeping the molecule of a substance on the surface of a solid is called adsorption. This results in an increased concentration on the surface than in the bulk. The expanse of adsorption of a gas on a solid material depends on the following factors:
- surface area of the solid
- temperature of the gas
- nature of the gas
- the pressure of the gas
- nature of solid
Chapter 6 – General Principles and Processes of Isolation of Elements
Metals are essential for different purposes. Therefore extracting them from the mineral resource in a commercially feasible way is important. The minerals in which the metal is present and extracted are called ores. Usually, the ores contain impurities which can be removed to a certain limit in the concentration steps. After this step, the ore is chemically treated to obtain metals. With the help of reducing agents such as CO, carbon, etc. the metal compound is reduced to metal.
- The metal oxide reacts with a reducing agent;
- The oxide reduces to metal
- Oxidation of reducing agent
Chapter 7 – The p-Block Elements
The elements from the group 13 to 18 in the periodic table are p-Block elements. They have a valence shell electronic configuration ns2np1–6. Since we have already discussed the group13 and 14 elements in the previous class, therefore, this chapter will be covering the remaining groups of p-Block elements in this chapter.
Chapter 8 – The d-and f-Block Elements
The middle layer of the periodic table is filled with d block elements. The inner d orbits of group 3 to group 13 are filled progressively. On the other hand, f block elements are found outside at the bottom of the periodic table. In these elements, 5f and 4f orbitals are filled progressively. Three series of transition elements are recognized by the filling of 3d, 4d, 5d orbitals. They have a high boiling and melting point. The metallic properties exhibited by the transition elements are
- Electrical conductivity
- Thermal conductivity
- High tensile strength
- Metallic character
Chapter 9 – Coordination Compounds
Coordination compounds is a challenging area in modern inorganic chemistry. Due to the advancement in this area new concepts such as models of bonding, molecular structure, important insights on the functioning of complex components of the biological system, etc. have been developed.
PART 2 :
Chapter 10 – Haloalkanes and Haloarenes
Haloalkanes and haloarenes are the hydrocarbons in which one or more hydrogen atoms have been replaced with halogen atoms. The primary difference between haloalkanes and haloarenes is that haloalkanes are derived from open-chain hydrocarbons (alkanes) whereas haloarenes are derived from aromatic hydrocarbons.
Chapter 11 – Alcohols, Phenols and Ethers
Ethers are classified based on the group attached to an oxygen atom. Phenols and alcohols are categorized based on two factors:
- Number of hydroxyl groups present
- Based on the hybridization of the carbon atom to which the -OH group is attached
Chapter 12 – Aldehydes, Ketones and Carboxylic Acids
Some important organic compounds containing carbonyl groups are carboxylic acids, aldehydes, and ketones. These molecules are highly polar and hence have high boiling temperatures when compared to hydrocarbons as well as weak polar compounds such as ethers of comparable molecular masses. The lower embers form hydrogen bonds with water and therefore are highly water-soluble. On the other hand, higher members have a big hydrophobic carbon chain and are insoluble in water. Method of preparing aldehyde is by controlled oxidation of primary alcohols or dehydrogenation and cautious or controlled reduction of acyl halides.
Chapter 13 – Amines
Amines are derived from ammonia acquired by replacing hydrogen atoms in aryl or with alkyl groups. When one hydrogen atom is replaced it gives rise to a primary amine. The structure of secondary amines is given by R2NH or R-NHR′ whereas tertiary amines are characterized by RNR′R′′ or R2NR′ or R3N. If the aryl or alkyl group of tertiary and secondary amines are the same they are called simple amines, but if they are attached to different groups they are called mixed amines. Amines have one unshared electron pair on the nitrogen atom, therefore, they behave as Lewis bases. They are formed from halides, amides, nitro compounds or imides.
Chapter 14 – Biomolecules
Carbohydrates are classified into three groups viz monosaccharides, disaccharides, polysaccharides. Glucose is obtained by the digestion of starch. Polysaccharides and disaccharides are formed by the monosaccharides connected with glycosidic linkages between them. Proteins are a chain of twenty different α-amino acids which are linked by peptide bonds. Around ten amino acids cannot be synthesized by our body and must be consumed through diet. These are called essential amino acids. Certain dynamic and structural functions are carried out by protein. Proteins are classified as simple proteins, and secondary or tertiary. Simple proteins are the proteins containing only α-amino acids. Whenever there is a change in PH or temperature the secondary and tertiary proteins get disturbed and are unable to carry out their function. This is known as denaturation of the protein. Enzymes increase the rate of a chemical reaction and are very selective and specific in their action. Chemically every enzyme is a protein.
Chapter 15 – Polymers
Polymers are derived from monomers which consist of repeating structural units of high molecular mass macromolecules. They may occur in natural or synthetic form and are classified in many ways such as based on origin, structure, etc.
Chapter 16 – Chemistry in Everyday Life
The study of materials, as well as the evolution of new materials for the betterment of humanity, is called Chemistry. A drug is defined as a chemical agent which will affect human metabolism to cure the illness. If the intake of the dose is higher than the recommended dose, then it can be poisonous. Chemotherapy is the use of chemicals for therapeutic effect. Drugs interact with target molecules i.e biological macromolecules such as carbohydrates, lipids, nucleic acids, and proteins. Drugs are designed in such a way that they interact with specific targets only to minimize the side effects. Releasing mental stress, destroying microbes/arresting microbes, preventing the body from infectious diseases, etc. is taken care of by drug chemistry.
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