CBSE Syllabus

CBSE Syllabus for Class 12 Physics 

CBSE Syllabus for Class 12 Physics 

Given below Class 12 Physics syllabus along with marking scheme and time duration.


No. of Periods







Chapter–1: Electric Charges and Fields


Chapter–2: Electrostatic Potential and Capacitance


Current Electricity



Chapter–3: Current Electricity


Magnetic Effects of Current and Magnetism




Chapter–4: Moving Charges and Magnetism


Chapter–5: Magnetism and Matter


Electromagnetic Induction and Alternating Currents



Chapter–6: Electromagnetic Induction


Chapter–7: Alternating Current


Electromagnetic Waves




Chapter–8: Electromagnetic Waves





Chapter–9: Ray Optics and Optical Instruments


Chapter–10: Wave Optics


Dual Nature of Radiation and Matter




Chapter–11: Dual Nature of Radiation and Matter


Atoms and Nuclei



Chapter–12: Atoms


Chapter–13: Nuclei


Electronic Devices




Chapter–14: Semiconductor Electronics: Materials, Devices and Simple Circuits


Communication Systems



Chapter–15: Communication Systems




Course Syllabus

Unit I: Electrostatics

Chapter 1: Electric Charges and Fields

  • Electric Charges −
    • Cnservation of charge
    • Culomb’s law-force between two point charges
    • Frces between multiple charges
    • Superpsition principle
    • Cntinuous charge distribution
  • Electric field, electric field due to a point charge, electric field lines, electric dipole, electric field due to a dipole, torque on a dipole in uniform electric field.
  • Electric flux, statement of Gauss’s theorem and its applications to find field due to infinitely long straight wire, uniformly charged infinite plane sheet and uniformly charged thin spherical shell (field inside and outside).

Chapter-2: Electrostatic Potential and Capacitance

  • Electric potential, potential difference, electric potential due to a point charge, a dipole and system of charges
  • Equipotential surfaces, electrical potential energy of a system of two point charges and of electric dipole in an electrostatic field
  • Conductors and insulators, free charges and bound charges inside a conductor
  • Dielectrics and electric polarisation, capacitors and capacitance, combination of capacitors in series and in parallel, capacitance of a parallel plate capacitor with and without dielectric medium between the plates, energy stored in a capacitor.

Unit II: Current Electricity

Chapter 3: Current Electricity

  • Electric current, flow of electric charges in a metallic conductor, drift velocity, mobility and their relation with electric current
  • Ohm’s law, electrical resistance, V-I characteristics (linear and non-linear), electrical energy and power, electrical resistivity and conductivity
  • Carbon resistors, colour code for carbon resistors; series and parallel combinations of resistors; temperature dependence of resistance
  • Internal resistance of a cell, potential difference and EMF of a cell, combination of cells in series and in parallel
  • Kirchhoff’s laws and simple applications
  • Wheatstone bridge, metre bridge
  • Potentiometer −
    • Principle and its applicatins to measure potential difference and for comparing EMF of two cells
    • Measurement f internal resistance of a cell

Unit III: Magnetic Effects of Current and Magnetism

Chapter 4: Moving Charges and Magnetism

  • Concept of magnetic field −
    • Oersted’s experiment
  • Biot - Savart law and its application to current carrying circular loop
  • Ampere’s law and its applications to infinitely long straight wire
  • Straight and toroidal solenoids
  • Force on a moving charge in uniform magnetic and electric fields
  • Cyclotron
  • Force on a current-carrying conductor in a uniform magnetic field
  • Force between two parallel current-carrying conductors-definition of ampere
  • Torque experienced by a current loop in uniform magnetic field; moving coil galvanometer-its current sensitivity and conversion to ammeter and voltmeter.

Chapter 5: Magnetism and Matter

  • Current loop as a magnetic dipole and its magnetic dipole moment
  • Magnetic dipole moment of a revolving electron
  • Magnetic field intensity due to a magnetic dipole (bar magnet) along its axis and perpendicular to its axis
  • Torque on a magnetic dipole (bar magnet) in a uniform magnetic field −
    • Bar magnet as an equivalent slenoid
    • Magnetic field lines
    • Earth’s magnetic field
    • Magnetic elements
  • Para-, dia- and ferro - magnetic substances, with examples
  • Electromagnets and factors affecting their strengths
  • Permanent magnets

Unit IV: Electromagnetic Induction and Alternating Currents

Chapter 6: Electromagnetic Induction

  • Electromagnetic induction −
    • Faraday’s laws
    • Induced EMF and current
    • Lenz’s Law
    • Eddy currents
  • Self and mutual induction.

Chapter 7: Alternating Current

  • Alternating currents −
    • Peak and RMS value of alternating current/voltage
    • Reactance and impedance
    • LC oscillations (qualitative treatment only)
    • LCR series circuit
    • Resonance
    • Power in AC circuits
    • Wattless current
  • AC generator and transformer

Unit V: Electromagnetic waves

Chapter 8: Electromagnetic Waves

  • Basic idea of displacement current, Electromagnetic waves, their characteristics, their transverse nature (qualitative ideas only).
  • Electromagnetic spectrum (radio waves, microwaves, infrared, visible, ultraviolet, X-rays, gamma rays) including elementary facts about their uses.

Unit VI: Optics

Chapter 9: Ray Optics and Optical Instruments

  • Ray Optics −
    • Reflectin of light
    • Spherical mirrrs
    • Mirrr formula
    • Refractin of light
    • Ttal internal reflection and its applications
    • Optical fibres
    • Refractin at spherical surfaces
    • Lenses
    • Thin lens frmula
    • Lensmaker’s frmula
  • Magnification, power of a lens, combination of thin lenses in contact combination of a lens and a mirror
  • Refraction and dispersion of light through a prism.
  • Scattering of light - blue colour of sky and reddish appearance of the sun at sunrise and sunset
  • Optical instruments: Microscopes and astronomical telescopes (reflecting and refracting) and their magnifying powers

Chapter 10: Wave Optics

  • Wave optics: Wave front and Huygen's principle, reflection and refraction of plane wave at a plane surface using wave fronts
  • Proof of laws of reflection and refraction using Huygen's principle
  • Interference Young's double slit experiment and expression for fringe width, coherent sources and sustained interference of light
  • Diffraction due to a single slit, width of central maximum
  • Resolving power of microscopes and astronomical telescopes
  • Polarisation, plane polarised light Brewster's law, uses of plane polarised light and Polaroids

Unit VII: Dual Nature of Matter and Radiation

Chapter 11: Dual Nature of Radiation and Matter

  • Dual nature of radiation
  • Photoelectric effect
  • Hertz and Lenard’s observations
  • Einstein’s photoelectric equation-particle nature of light
  • Matter waves-wave nature of particles, de Broglie relation
  • Davisson-Germer experiment (experimental details should be omitted; only conclusion should be explained).

Unit VIII: Atoms & Nuclei

Chapter 12: Atoms

  • Alpha-particle scattering experiment
  • Rutherford’s model of atom
  • Bohr model
  • Energy levels
  • Hydrogen spectrum

Chapter 13: Nuclei

  • Composition and size of −
    • Nucleus
    • Atomic masses
    • Isotopes
    • Isobars
    • Isotones
  • Radioactivity alpha, beta and gamma particles/rays and their properties
  • Radioactive decay law
  • Mass-energy relation −
    • Mass defect
    • Binding energy per nucleon and its variation with mass number
    • Nuclear fission
    • Nuclear fusion

Unit IX: Electronic Devices

Chapter 14: Semiconductor Electronics: Materials, Devices and Simple Circuits

  • Energy bands in conductors, semiconductors and insulators (qualitative ideas only)
  • Semiconductor diode - I-V characteristics in forward and reverse bias, diode as a rectifier
  • Special purpose p-n junction diodes: LED, photodiode, solar cell and Zener diode and their characteristics, zener diode as a voltage regulator
  • Junction transistor, transistor action, characteristics of a transistor and transistor as an amplifier (common emitter configuration), basic idea of analog and digital signals, Logic gates (OR, AND, NOT, NAND and NOR).

Unit X: Communication Systems

Chapter 15: Communication Systems

  • Elements of a communication system (block diagram only)
    • Bandwidth f signals (speech, TV and digital data)
    • Bandwidth f transmission medium
  • Propagation of electromagnetic waves in the atmosphere, sky and space wave propagation, satellite communication
  • Need for modulation, amplitude modulation and frequency modulation, advantages of frequency modulation over amplitude modulation
  • Basic ideas about internet, mobile telephony and global positioning system (GPS).

Physics Practical Syllabus


  1. To determine resistance per cm of a given wire by plotting a graph for potential difference versus current.
  2. To find resistance of a given wire using metre bridge and hence determine the resistivity (specific resistance) of its material.
  3. To verify the laws of combination (series) of resistances using a metre bridge.
  4. To verify the laws of combination (parallel) of resistances using a metre bridge.
  5. To compare the EMF of two given primary cells using potentiometer.
  6. To determine the internal resistance of given primary cell using potentiometer.
  7. To determine the resistance of a galvanometer by half-deflection method and to find its figure of merit.
  8. To convert the given galvanometer (of known resistance and figure of merit) into a voltmeter of desired range and to verify the same.
  9. To convert the given galvanometer (of known resistance and figure of merit) into an ammeter of desired range and to verify the same.
  10. To find the frequency of AC mains with a sonometer.


  1. To find the value of v for different values of u in case of a concave mirror and to find the focal length.
  2. To find the focal length of a convex mirror, using a convex lens.
  3. To find the focal length of a convex lens by plotting graphs between u and v or between 1/u and1/v.
  4. To find the focal length of a concave lens, using a convex lens.
  5. To determine the angle of minimum deviation for a given prism by plotting a graph between angle of incidence and angle of deviation.
  6. To determine the refractive index of a glass slab using a travelling microscope.
  7. To find the refractive index of a liquid by using a convex lens and plane mirror.
  8. To draw the I-V characteristic curve for a p-n junction in forward bias and reverse bias.
  9. To draw the characteristic curve of a zener diode and to determine its reverse break down voltage.
  10. To study the characteristics of a common – emitter npn or pnp transistor and to find out the value of current and voltage gains.

Practical Work

  • Record of at least 15 Experiments to be performed by the students.
  • Record of at least 5 to be demonstrated by the teachers.
  • The Report of the project, to be carried out by the students.